5 Promising Technologies to make Fuel out of CO2
Let’s stop the carbon and change the world into a green planet.
Take a look.
CO2 to e-diesel
Canadian scientists have developed a CO2 recycling plant that will convert CO2 e-diesel fuel.
Developer is the start-up Carbon Engineering, collaborating with Climeworks, and Global Thermostat. Bill Gates is one of the funders.
The CO2 recycling plant will combine carbon dioxide with hydrogen split from water to form hydrocarbon fuel.
- One problem they’re going to have to overcome is the high cost of heating their carbon dioxide to around 400 degrees Celsius so they can process it properly
- Another problem is that few investors are interested in giving them money until they can prove that this is actually feasible.
As the video explains, direct air capture seems to be the only potentially feasible way to absorb CO2 that’s already been emitted from small mobile sources such as cars, trucks, and planes, which make up 60 percent of carbon dioxide emissions today. The systems require 1,000 times less land than carbon-sucking trees, and can be installed on land, like desert plains, that isn’t worth cultivating or inhabiting.
High-tech photosynthesis turns CO2 into fuel
Research groups around the world are working to develop artificial photosynthesis
Here’s how artificial photosynthesis works: solar energy is used to split water and carbon dioxide into hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. A catalyst then recombines the molecules to create liquid fuels, such as methanol.
After 30 years of research, scientists have made significant progress over the past five years in bringing artificial photosynthesis to the market. Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have created a lab-scale device that converts 10% of the sunlight that reaches it into fuel, according to research published earlier this year. This compares with plants’ ability to convert 1% to 2% of sunlight into sugars and other carbohydrates.
Still they have some problems
- For one thing, it’s still too expensive
- To reduce the cost, significantly higher efficiency than 10% is needed, researchers say, as well as a cheaper catalyst. One of the most efficient and stable catalysts for splitting water is platinum, which – at about $1,100 an ounce – is too costly to be commercially viable for artificial photosynthesis.Making a device that’s long-lasting will also be key to driving costs down, researchers say, and then there’s the challenge of developing manufacturing equipment around the device that can mass produce fuels at a comparable production cost to gasoline.
- “The real challenge is going to be how do you make artificial photosynthesis at a reasonable scale and have it work in the real environment
CO2 to formic acid which can be used in hydrogen fuel cells
Panasonic has developed an artificial photosynthesis system which converts carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials by illuminating with sunlight at a world’s top efficiency of 0.2%.
The key to the system is the application of a nitride semiconductor which makes the system simple and efficient. This development can be a foundation for the realization of a system for capturing and converting wasted carbon dioxide from incinerators, power plants or industrial activities.
- And the New CO2 Fuels program at Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science seeks to convert CO2 into fuel
Start-Up CO2Fuels developed a technology that generates liquid fuels by using CO2 emissions and water as feedstock, and high-temperature heat sources such as excess heat from energy intensive industries and concentrated solar energy.This technology is comparable with the prototype machine founded by the Sandia National Laboratories
Their machine resembles a cylinder and is christened as Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver Reactor Recuperator (CR5). It is dependent on concentrated solar heat to activate a thermo-chemical reaction in an iron-rich composite material. The material is designed in such a way that when exposed to extreme heat, it gives up an oxygen molecule and then retrieves an oxygen molecule once it cools down.
European Jet-fuel from CO2
An EU-funded research project called SOLAR-JET has produced the world’s first “solar” jet fuel from water and carbon dioxide (CO2). Researchers have for the first time successfully demonstrated the entire production chain for renewable kerosene, using concentrated light as a high-temperature energy source.
The project is still at the experimental stage, with a glassful of jet fuel produced in laboratory conditions, using simulated sunlight. However, the results give hope that in future any liquid hydrocarbon fuels could be produced from sunlight, CO2 and water.
In a first step concentrated light – simulating sunlight – was used to convert carbon dioxide and water to synthesis gas in a high-temperature solar reactor containing metal-oxide based materials developed at ETH Zürich. The syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) was then converted into kerosene by Shell using the established “Fischer-Tropsch” process.
- Bill Gates boosts $2bn to accelerate renewable breakthroughs
- Recycled CO2 produces sustainable energy
- COP21 – 1.5 degrees? Only with CO2 storage and fossil-free by 2030
- Siemens opens plant for sustainable hydrogen production
- Hydrogen Power, Pros & Cons
- Boeing and NASA cooperate exploring Hydrogen Energy
- The story of hydrogen with solar power
- A new way to produce hydrogen from clean, renewable energy sources
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