Climate summit: the final

CO2, emissions, Fossil, global heat, global warming, GPD, green energy, Green power, Paris, reduction, renewables, storage, Kerry, USA, COP21, global warming, 1.5 degrees,  payment, climate summit

Yesterday, US Secretary of State John Kerry announced a doubling of the US payments on climate aid from 430 to $ 860 million in 2020. With this gesture of goodwill the White House hopes for a possible signal from the developing countries.

Yesterday, the new concept agreement was finished. Just two hours later than promised.

  • It is 29 pages shorter than the previous one (43)
  • More than three quarters of the discussion have been resolved.
  • The choices are reduced from 200 to 40

Big battle points

The big discussion points are still open:

  1. Will the agreement set up for 2 or 1.5 degrees global warming?
  2. Are the fossil fuels curbed or abolished? If so, by 2050, as is needed for 1.5 degree?
  3. How can the voluntary CO2 reductions of countries be strengthened?
  4. Should emerging developing countries like China pay for climate aid to the poorest countries?

In line

Now, it is needed to align the draft agreement with the growing ambitions. This is crunch time. It’s going to be difficult, but the text is enough to fight for, according to Greenpeace. The final negotiations have ben started today. What will be difficult?

  • Developing countries including China, want more climate aid from rich countries
  • Emerging countries like China and Malaysia plus oil states like Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, want more emissions without paying and an agreement as weak as possible
  • The BASIC countries (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) will only pay for climate support as it is voluntary
  • The poorest and most vulnerable countries, such as the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) and the Least Developed Countries (LDC), mainly want a strong and binding agreement

Pledge and review

The French managed to keep all these clubs together. The text is still containing something for everyone and all delegations want to return for home with good results. Crucial in the agreement is the system of ‘pledge and review’: countries commit voluntarily to reduce their CO2 emissions and promise periodically reviews.
According to the binding part of the agreement, this will be done from 2023/24. Major emitters such as the US, EU, China and India may agree on this part.

Two attempts

Two attempts were made to bridge the rich-poor disputes.

  1. The first by the EU, the US and 79 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, who presented the High Ambition Coalition which advocates a binding and ambitious deal, for 1.5 grade
  2. A pledge and review system that starts before 2020, however without making clear how.

With still 48 hours to go, it is still possible to reach an ambitious agreement, and let the sadness of Copenhagen behind us.

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